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An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology [electronic resource] / edited by Roland B. Stull.

QC851-999

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### Details

Title
An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology [electronic resource] / edited by Roland B. Stull.

Uniform Title
Springer eBook collection. Archives

Springer eBook collection. Earth and Environmental Sciences

Springer eBook collection. Earth and Environmental Sciences

ISBN
9789400930278

Published
Dordrecht : Springer Netherlands, 1988.

Language
English

Description
1 online resource (XIV, 670 p.) : digital

Summary
Part of the excitement in boundary-layer meteorology is the challenge associated with turbulent flow - one of the unsolved problems in classical physics. The flavor of the challenges and the excitement associated with the study of the atmospheric boundary layer are captured in this textbook. The work should also be considered as a major reference and as a review of the literature, since it includes tables of parameterizations, procedures, field experiments, useful constants, and graphs of various phenomena under a variety of conditions. The author envisions, and has catered for, a heterogeneity in the background and experience of his readers. Therefore, the book is useful to beginning graduate students as well as established scientists. 'The book is a welcome addition to the boundary-layer literature, one of the first truly comprehensive texts... ' (Boundary-Layer Meteorology) 'I found, in fact, that within hours of the book's arrival, I had consulted it twice..' (AMS Bulletin, 1989) 'Stull's book is destined to be the overwhelmingly favorite text and general reference in atmospheric turbulence and boundary layer physics during the1990s'. (AMS Bulletin, 1990) '.. a good introductory textbook which is likely to be well used in the coming years.' (Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society).

Formatted Contents Note

1 Mean Boundary Layer Characteristics

1.1 A boundary-layer definition

1.2 Wind and flow

1.3 Turbulent transport

1.4 Taylor's hypothesis

1.5 Virtual potential temperature

1.6 Boundaiy layer depth and structure

1.7 Micrometeorology

1.8 Significance of the boundary layer

1.9 General references

1.10 References for this chapter

1.11 Exercises

2 Some Mathematical and Conceptual Tools: Part 1. Statistics

2.1 The significance of turbulence and its spectrum

2.2 The spectral gap

2.3 Mean and turbulent parts

2.4 Some basic statistical methods

2.5 Turbulence kinetic energy

2.6 Kinematic flux

2.7 Eddy flux

2.8 Summation notation

2.9 Stress

2.10 Friction velocity

2.11 References

2.12 Exercises

3 Application of the Governing Equations to Turbulent Flow

3.1 Methodology

3.2 Basic governing equations

3.3 Simplifications, approximations, and scaling arguments

3.4 Equations for mean variables in a turbulent flow

3.5 Summary of equations, with simplifications

3.6 Case studies

3.7 References

3.8 Exercises

4 Prognostic Equations for Turbulent Fluxes and Variances

4.1 Prognostic equations for the turbulent departures

4.2 Free convection scaling variables

4.3 Prognostic equations for variances

4.4 Prognostic equations for turbulent fluxes

4.5 References

4.6 Exercises

5 Turbulence Kinetic Energy, Stability, and Scaling

5.1 The TKE budget derivation

5.2 Contributions to the TKE budget

5.3 TKE budget contributions as a function of eddy size

5.4 Mean kinetic energy and its interaction with turbulence

5.5 Stability concepts

5.6 The Richardson number

5.7 The Obukhov length

5.8 Dimensionless gradients

5.9 Miscellaneous scaling parameters

5.10 Combined stability tables

5.11 References

5.12 Exercises

6 Turbulence Closure Techniques

6.1 The closure problem

6.2 Parameterization rules

6.3 Local closure - zero and half order

6.4 Local closure - first order

6.5 Local closure - one-and-a-half order

6.6 Local closure - second order

6.7 Local closure - third order

6.8 Nonlocal closure - transilient turbulence theory

6.9 Nonlocal closure - spectral diffusivity theory

6.10 References

6.11 Exercises

7 Boundary Conditions and External Forcings

7.1 Effective surface turbulent flux

7.2 Heat budget at the surface

7.3 Radiation budget

7.4 Fluxes at interfaces

7.5 Partitioning of flux into sensible and latent portions

7.6 Flux to and from the ground

7.7 References

7.8 Exercises

8 Some Mathematical and Conceptual Tools: Part 2. Time Series

8.1 Time and space series

8.2 Autocorrelation

8.3 Structure function

8.4 Discrete Fourier transform

8.5 Fast Fourier Transform

8.6 Energy spectrum

8.7 Spectral characteristics

8.8 Spectra of two variables

8.9 Periodogram

8.10 Nonlocal spectra

8.11 Spectral decomposition of the TKE equation

8.12 References

8.13 Exercises

9 Similarity Theory

9.1 An overview

9.2 Buckingham Pi dimensional analysis methods

9.3 Scaling variables

9.4 Stable boundary layer similarity relationship lists

9.5 Neutral boundary layer similarity relationship lists

9.6 Convective boundary layer similarity relationship lists

9.7 The log wind profile

9.8 Rossby-number similarity and profile matching

9.9 Spectral similarity

9.10 Similarity scaling domains

9.11 References

9.12 Exercises

10 Measurement and Simulation Techniques

10.1 Sensor and measurement categories

10.2 Sensor lists

10.3 Active remote sensor observations of morphology

10.4 Instrument platforms

10.5 Field experiments

10.6 Simulation methods

10.7 Analysis methods

10.8 References

10.9 Exercises

11 Convective Mixed Layer

11.1 The unstable surface layer

11.2 The mixed layer

11.3 Entrainment zone

11.4 Entrainment velocity and its parameterization

11.5 Subsidence and advection

11.6 References

11.7 Exercises

12 Stable Boundary Layer

12.1 Mean Characteristics

12.2 Processes

12.3 Evolution

12.4 Other Depth Models

12.5 Low-level (nocturnal) jet

12.6 Buoyancy (gravity) waves

12.7 Terrain slope and drainage winds

12.8 References

12.9 Exercises

13 Boundary Layer Clouds

13.1 Thermodynamics

13.2 Radiation

13.3 Cloud entrainment mechanisms

13.4 Fair-weather cumulus

13.5 Stratocumulus

13.6 Fog

13.7 References

13.8 Exercises

14 Geographic Effects

14.1 Geographically generated local winds

14.2 Geographically modified flow

14.3 Urban heat island

14.4 References

14.5 Exercises

Appendices

A. Scaling variables and dimensionless groups

B. Notation

C. Useful constants parameters and conversion factors

D. Derivation of virtual potential temperature

Errata section.

1.1 A boundary-layer definition

1.2 Wind and flow

1.3 Turbulent transport

1.4 Taylor's hypothesis

1.5 Virtual potential temperature

1.6 Boundaiy layer depth and structure

1.7 Micrometeorology

1.8 Significance of the boundary layer

1.9 General references

1.10 References for this chapter

1.11 Exercises

2 Some Mathematical and Conceptual Tools: Part 1. Statistics

2.1 The significance of turbulence and its spectrum

2.2 The spectral gap

2.3 Mean and turbulent parts

2.4 Some basic statistical methods

2.5 Turbulence kinetic energy

2.6 Kinematic flux

2.7 Eddy flux

2.8 Summation notation

2.9 Stress

2.10 Friction velocity

2.11 References

2.12 Exercises

3 Application of the Governing Equations to Turbulent Flow

3.1 Methodology

3.2 Basic governing equations

3.3 Simplifications, approximations, and scaling arguments

3.4 Equations for mean variables in a turbulent flow

3.5 Summary of equations, with simplifications

3.6 Case studies

3.7 References

3.8 Exercises

4 Prognostic Equations for Turbulent Fluxes and Variances

4.1 Prognostic equations for the turbulent departures

4.2 Free convection scaling variables

4.3 Prognostic equations for variances

4.4 Prognostic equations for turbulent fluxes

4.5 References

4.6 Exercises

5 Turbulence Kinetic Energy, Stability, and Scaling

5.1 The TKE budget derivation

5.2 Contributions to the TKE budget

5.3 TKE budget contributions as a function of eddy size

5.4 Mean kinetic energy and its interaction with turbulence

5.5 Stability concepts

5.6 The Richardson number

5.7 The Obukhov length

5.8 Dimensionless gradients

5.9 Miscellaneous scaling parameters

5.10 Combined stability tables

5.11 References

5.12 Exercises

6 Turbulence Closure Techniques

6.1 The closure problem

6.2 Parameterization rules

6.3 Local closure - zero and half order

6.4 Local closure - first order

6.5 Local closure - one-and-a-half order

6.6 Local closure - second order

6.7 Local closure - third order

6.8 Nonlocal closure - transilient turbulence theory

6.9 Nonlocal closure - spectral diffusivity theory

6.10 References

6.11 Exercises

7 Boundary Conditions and External Forcings

7.1 Effective surface turbulent flux

7.2 Heat budget at the surface

7.3 Radiation budget

7.4 Fluxes at interfaces

7.5 Partitioning of flux into sensible and latent portions

7.6 Flux to and from the ground

7.7 References

7.8 Exercises

8 Some Mathematical and Conceptual Tools: Part 2. Time Series

8.1 Time and space series

8.2 Autocorrelation

8.3 Structure function

8.4 Discrete Fourier transform

8.5 Fast Fourier Transform

8.6 Energy spectrum

8.7 Spectral characteristics

8.8 Spectra of two variables

8.9 Periodogram

8.10 Nonlocal spectra

8.11 Spectral decomposition of the TKE equation

8.12 References

8.13 Exercises

9 Similarity Theory

9.1 An overview

9.2 Buckingham Pi dimensional analysis methods

9.3 Scaling variables

9.4 Stable boundary layer similarity relationship lists

9.5 Neutral boundary layer similarity relationship lists

9.6 Convective boundary layer similarity relationship lists

9.7 The log wind profile

9.8 Rossby-number similarity and profile matching

9.9 Spectral similarity

9.10 Similarity scaling domains

9.11 References

9.12 Exercises

10 Measurement and Simulation Techniques

10.1 Sensor and measurement categories

10.2 Sensor lists

10.3 Active remote sensor observations of morphology

10.4 Instrument platforms

10.5 Field experiments

10.6 Simulation methods

10.7 Analysis methods

10.8 References

10.9 Exercises

11 Convective Mixed Layer

11.1 The unstable surface layer

11.2 The mixed layer

11.3 Entrainment zone

11.4 Entrainment velocity and its parameterization

11.5 Subsidence and advection

11.6 References

11.7 Exercises

12 Stable Boundary Layer

12.1 Mean Characteristics

12.2 Processes

12.3 Evolution

12.4 Other Depth Models

12.5 Low-level (nocturnal) jet

12.6 Buoyancy (gravity) waves

12.7 Terrain slope and drainage winds

12.8 References

12.9 Exercises

13 Boundary Layer Clouds

13.1 Thermodynamics

13.2 Radiation

13.3 Cloud entrainment mechanisms

13.4 Fair-weather cumulus

13.5 Stratocumulus

13.6 Fog

13.7 References

13.8 Exercises

14 Geographic Effects

14.1 Geographically generated local winds

14.2 Geographically modified flow

14.3 Urban heat island

14.4 References

14.5 Exercises

Appendices

A. Scaling variables and dimensionless groups

B. Notation

C. Useful constants parameters and conversion factors

D. Derivation of virtual potential temperature

Errata section.

Digital File Characteristics
text file PDF

Series
Atmospheric and Oceanographic Sciences Library, 1383-8601 ; 13

In
Springer eBooks

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