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Part of the excitement in boundary-layer meteorology is the challenge associated with turbulent flow - one of the unsolved problems in classical physics. The flavor of the challenges and the excitement associated with the study of the atmospheric boundary layer are captured in this textbook. The work should also be considered as a major reference and as a review of the literature, since it includes tables of parameterizations, procedures, field experiments, useful constants, and graphs of various phenomena under a variety of conditions. The author envisions, and has catered for, a heterogeneity in the background and experience of his readers. Therefore, the book is useful to beginning graduate students as well as established scientists. 'The book is a welcome addition to the boundary-layer literature, one of the first truly comprehensive texts... ' (Boundary-Layer Meteorology) 'I found, in fact, that within hours of the book's arrival, I had consulted it twice..' (AMS Bulletin, 1989) 'Stull's book is destined to be the overwhelmingly favorite text and general reference in atmospheric turbulence and boundary layer physics during the1990s'. (AMS Bulletin, 1990) '.. a good introductory textbook which is likely to be well used in the coming years.' (Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society).
Formatted Contents Note
1 Mean Boundary Layer Characteristics 1.1 A boundary-layer definition 1.2 Wind and flow 1.3 Turbulent transport 1.4 Taylor's hypothesis 1.5 Virtual potential temperature 1.6 Boundaiy layer depth and structure 1.7 Micrometeorology 1.8 Significance of the boundary layer 1.9 General references 1.10 References for this chapter 1.11 Exercises 2 Some Mathematical and Conceptual Tools: Part 1. Statistics 2.1 The significance of turbulence and its spectrum 2.2 The spectral gap 2.3 Mean and turbulent parts 2.4 Some basic statistical methods 2.5 Turbulence kinetic energy 2.6 Kinematic flux 2.7 Eddy flux 2.8 Summation notation 2.9 Stress 2.10 Friction velocity 2.11 References 2.12 Exercises 3 Application of the Governing Equations to Turbulent Flow 3.1 Methodology 3.2 Basic governing equations 3.3 Simplifications, approximations, and scaling arguments 3.4 Equations for mean variables in a turbulent flow 3.5 Summary of equations, with simplifications 3.6 Case studies 3.7 References 3.8 Exercises 4 Prognostic Equations for Turbulent Fluxes and Variances 4.1 Prognostic equations for the turbulent departures 4.2 Free convection scaling variables 4.3 Prognostic equations for variances 4.4 Prognostic equations for turbulent fluxes 4.5 References 4.6 Exercises 5 Turbulence Kinetic Energy, Stability, and Scaling 5.1 The TKE budget derivation 5.2 Contributions to the TKE budget 5.3 TKE budget contributions as a function of eddy size 5.4 Mean kinetic energy and its interaction with turbulence 5.5 Stability concepts 5.6 The Richardson number 5.7 The Obukhov length 5.8 Dimensionless gradients 5.9 Miscellaneous scaling parameters 5.10 Combined stability tables 5.11 References 5.12 Exercises 6 Turbulence Closure Techniques 6.1 The closure problem 6.2 Parameterization rules 6.3 Local closure - zero and half order 6.4 Local closure - first order 6.5 Local closure - one-and-a-half order 6.6 Local closure - second order 6.7 Local closure - third order 6.8 Nonlocal closure - transilient turbulence theory 6.9 Nonlocal closure - spectral diffusivity theory 6.10 References 6.11 Exercises 7 Boundary Conditions and External Forcings 7.1 Effective surface turbulent flux 7.2 Heat budget at the surface 7.3 Radiation budget 7.4 Fluxes at interfaces 7.5 Partitioning of flux into sensible and latent portions 7.6 Flux to and from the ground 7.7 References 7.8 Exercises 8 Some Mathematical and Conceptual Tools: Part 2. Time Series 8.1 Time and space series 8.2 Autocorrelation 8.3 Structure function 8.4 Discrete Fourier transform 8.5 Fast Fourier Transform 8.6 Energy spectrum 8.7 Spectral characteristics 8.8 Spectra of two variables 8.9 Periodogram 8.10 Nonlocal spectra 8.11 Spectral decomposition of the TKE equation 8.12 References 8.13 Exercises 9 Similarity Theory 9.1 An overview 9.2 Buckingham Pi dimensional analysis methods 9.3 Scaling variables 9.4 Stable boundary layer similarity relationship lists 9.5 Neutral boundary layer similarity relationship lists 9.6 Convective boundary layer similarity relationship lists 9.7 The log wind profile 9.8 Rossby-number similarity and profile matching 9.9 Spectral similarity 9.10 Similarity scaling domains 9.11 References 9.12 Exercises 10 Measurement and Simulation Techniques 10.1 Sensor and measurement categories 10.2 Sensor lists 10.3 Active remote sensor observations of morphology 10.4 Instrument platforms 10.5 Field experiments 10.6 Simulation methods 10.7 Analysis methods 10.8 References 10.9 Exercises 11 Convective Mixed Layer 11.1 The unstable surface layer 11.2 The mixed layer 11.3 Entrainment zone 11.4 Entrainment velocity and its parameterization 11.5 Subsidence and advection 11.6 References 11.7 Exercises 12 Stable Boundary Layer 12.1 Mean Characteristics 12.2 Processes 12.3 Evolution 12.4 Other Depth Models 12.5 Low-level (nocturnal) jet 12.6 Buoyancy (gravity) waves 12.7 Terrain slope and drainage winds 12.8 References 12.9 Exercises 13 Boundary Layer Clouds 13.1 Thermodynamics 13.2 Radiation 13.3 Cloud entrainment mechanisms 13.4 Fair-weather cumulus 13.5 Stratocumulus 13.6 Fog 13.7 References 13.8 Exercises 14 Geographic Effects 14.1 Geographically generated local winds 14.2 Geographically modified flow 14.3 Urban heat island 14.4 References 14.5 Exercises Appendices A. Scaling variables and dimensionless groups B. Notation C. Useful constants parameters and conversion factors D. Derivation of virtual potential temperature Errata section.
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Atmospheric and Oceanographic Sciences Library, 1383-8601 ; 13